Biology 10 biotechnology Chapter No. 17

Chapter 17 BIOTECHNOLOGY

Q.1. Define biotechnology and describe its importance.

Ans.Biotechnology is defined as the use of living organisms in processes for the manufacture of useful products or for services to mankind. Fermentation and other such processes, which are based on the natural capabilities of organisms, are commonly considered as old biotechnology.

Scope and Importance of Biotechnology

In recent years, biotechnology is growing as a separate science. It has attracted the attention of many intellectuals from diverse fields like agriculture, medicine, microbiology and organic chemistry. The scope for biotechnology is so wide that it is difficult to recognize the limits.

The following are some areas of the application of biotechnology.

Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine

  1. i) In the field of medicine, biotechnologists synthesized insulin and interferon (antiviral proteins) from bacteria and released for sale.
  2. ii) A large number of vaccines and antibodies,; human growth hormone and other medicines/have also been produced.

Hi) Various enzymes are being synthesized for medicinal as well as industrial use.

  1. iv) Gene therapy (treatment through genes) has become important in recent years,
  2. v) Biotechnology is also much beneficial in forensic medicine,
  3. vi) The study of DNA helps in the identification of criminals.

Biotechnology in the field of food and Agriculture

  1. i) Fermented foods (e.g. pickles, yogurt), malted foods.(e.g. powdered milk: a mixture of barley, wheat flour and whole, milk), various vitamins and dairy products are produced by using microorganisms.
  2. ii) Wine and beer are produced in beverage industry.

iii) Biotechnology has also revolutionized research activities in the area of agriculture. Transgenic (organisms with modified genetic set-up) . plants are being developed; in which desirable characteristics are present e.g. more yields and resistance against diseases, insects and herbicides.

  1. iv) Transgenic goats, chicken, cows give more food and milk etc.
  2. v) Many animals like mice, goats, cows etc. have been made transgenic to get medicines through their milk, blood, urine.

 

Biotechnology and Environment

  1. i) Biotechnology is also being used for dealing with environmental issues, pollution control.
  2. ii) Development of renewable sources for energy.

iii) Restoration of degraded lands and biodiversity conservation.

  1. iv) Bacterial enzymes are used to treat sewage water to purify.
  2. v) Microbes are being developed to be used as biopesticides, biofertiliz biosensors etc.
  3. vi) Such transgenic microorganisms are also used for the recovery of meto cleaning of spilled oils and for many other purposes.

Fears are also being expressed about the advances in biotechnology in terms i release of harmful organisms developed through recombinant DMA technology.

Q.2. Name the scientist who produced Dolly(sheep)?

. Ans:In Scotland, in 1997, an embryologist lan Wilmut produced a sheep (Dolly) fronvf the body cell of an adult sheep.

Q.3 What is modern biotechnology? Briefly describe the history of modern | biotechnology.

Ans Human began using microorganisms as early as 4000 BC for making wine, vinegar, cheese, yogurt etc. Some of these processes have become a part of every home that we may even hesitate to referthem as biotechnology.

Modern Biotechnology( Genetic Engineering)

Genetic engineering i.e. the artificial synthesis, modification, removal, addition and repair of the genetic material (DMA) is considered as modern biotechnology. It is done to alter the characteristics of organisms.

The work on genetic engineering started in 1944 when it was proved that DNA carries the genetic information. Scientists isolated the enzymes of DNA synthesis and then prepared DNA outside cells. In 1970s, they were able to cut and paste the DNA of organisms. In 1978, scientists prepared human insulin by inserting the insulin gene in bacteria. Human growth hormone was also synthesized in bacteria. In 1990, the Human Genome Project was launched to map all the genes in human cell. The complete map of human genome was published in 2002.

Q.4 How would you define fermentation with reference to biotechnology? Also describe the types of carbohydrate fermentation.

Ans: FERMENTATION

Fermentation is the process in which there is incomplete oxidation-reduction of glucose. Fermentation has been in the knowledge of man since centuries, but it was believed that it is purely a chemical process.

In 1857, Pastures convinced the scientific community that all fermentations are the results of microbial activity. He showed that fermentation is always Glucose

accompanied by the development of microorganisms. There are many kinds of fermentation and each kind is a characteristic of particular microbial group.

Carbohydrate Fermentation

Fermentation is classified in the terms of the products formed. The initial steps of carbohydrate fermentation are identical to those of respiration. The process begins with g.lycolysis, in which the glucose, molecule is broken into two

molecules of pyruvic acid Different microorganis ms precede the urther reaction in different ways; it results in the ” formation of various products from pyruvic acid.

Lactic acid

OR

Other Organic acids

Types of Carbohydrate Fermentation

There are two basic types of carbohydrate fermentation.

  1. Alcoholic Fermentation (by yeast)

This fermentation is carried out by many types of yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This process is quite important and is used to produce bread, beer, wine and distilled spirits. In this process,-carbon dioxide is removed from pyruvic acid. The products i.e. acetaldehyde is then reduced to ethanol. The carbon dioxide produced during this fermentation causes the rise of the bread. Figure 17.1

  1. Lactic Acid Fermentation (by bacteria)

In this process, pyruvic is reduced to lactic acid. It is carried out by many bacteria e.g. Streptococcus and many Lactobacillus species. It is quite

Lactic acid fermentation

important in dairy industry where it is used for souring milk and also for production of various types of cheese. Figure 17.2

Q.5. Describe the role of fermentation in biotechnology. OR Write down the applications of fermentation.

Arts: Fermentation in Biotechnology

In beginning, the meaning of fermentation process was the use of microorganisms for the production of food (cheese, yogurt, fermented pickles and sausages, soy sauce), beverages (beers, wines) and spirits. However, in biotechnology the term “fermentation” means the production of any product by the mass culture of micro-organisms.

Application of Fermentation

In fermentation growth of organisms is obtained for the production of desired products of commercial value. Traditionally, only food and beverage products were produced by using fermentation. Now many other products e.g. industrial chemicals are also being produced.

  1. a) Fermented Foods

Fermentation often makes the food more nutritious, more digestible and tastier. It also tends to preserve the food, lowering the need for refrigeration.

The following groups are included in the fermented foods.

  1. i) Cereal products: Bread is the commonest type of fermented cereal product. Wheat dough is fermented by S. cerevisiae with some lactic acid bacteria.
  2. ii) Dairy products: Cheese and yogurt are important fermentation products. Cheese is formed when a milk protein is coagulated. This happens when the acid produced by lactic acid bacteria reacts with milk protein. Yogurt is made from milk by different lactic acid bacteria.

iii) Fruit and vegetable products: Fermentation is usually used, along with salt and acid, to preserve pickle, fruits and vegetables.

  1. iv) Beverage Products: Beer is produced from cereal grains which have been malted, dried and ground into fine powder. Fermentation of the powder is done by yeast. This process breaks the glucose present in powder into pyruvic acid and then into ethanol. Grapes can be directly fermented by yeasts to wine.
  2. b) Industrial Products

The following are the important industrial products produced through the process of fermentation.

 

B/otec

Products

 

Microorganisms used

 

Some uses

 

Formic acid

 

Aspergillus

 

Used in textile dyeing, leather treatment electroplating, rubber manufacture

 

Ethanol

 

Saccharomyces

 

Used as solvent; used in the production of vinegar and beverages

 

Glycerol

 

Saccharomyces

 

Used as solvent; used in the production of plastics, cosmetics and soaps; used in printing; used as sweetener

 

Acrylic acid

 

Bacillus

 

Used in the production of plastic

 

Q.6. Name any two Industrial products made by fermentation. Also describe their uses in the industry.

Ans: The following are the two important industrial products produced through the process of fermentation. .

Products

 

Microorganisms used

 

Some uses

 

Formic acid

 

Aspergjllus

 

Used in textile dyeing, leather treatment electroplating, rubber manufacture

 

Ethanol

 

Saccharomyces

 

Used as solvent; used in the production of vinegar and beverages

 

Q.7. What are the products of the two types of carbohydrate fermentation?

Ans: The products of the carbohydrate fermentation are as follows.

1) Alcoholic Fermentation: The product of alcoholic fermentation is acetaldehyde that then reduced to ethanol. –

2) Lactic Acid Fermentation: The product of lactic acid fermentation is llbtic acid.

Q.8.What is fermenter? What are the two types of fermentation carried out in fermenters?

Ans:Fermenter

The fermenter constitutes the heart of any industrial fermentation process.

Fermenter is a device that provides optimum environment to microorganisms to grow into a biomass, so that they can interact with a substrate, forming the product. Fermentation is carried out in fermenters, in the following two ways:

Batch Fermentation

In this process, the tank of fermenter is filled with the raw materials to be fermented. The temperature and pH for microbial fermentation is properly adjusted, and nutritive supplements are added. All the material is steam sterilized. The pure culture of microorganisms is added to fermenter from a separate vessel. Fermentation proceeds and after the proper time the contents of fermenter are taken out. Fermenter is cleaned and the process is repeated. Thus, fermentation is a discontinuous process divided into batches. Figure 17.3

Continuous Fermentation

In this process, the substrate is added to fermenter continuously at a fixed rate. This maintains the microorganisms in growth phase. Fermentation products are taken out continuously. The design and arrangements for continuous fermentation are more complex. Figure 17.4

Q.9. Write down the advantages of using fermenters.

Ans. Advantages of using Fermenters

  1. I) For each biotechnological process, the environment provided to the organisms must be monitored and controlled. Such a controlled environment is provided by fermenters.
  2. ii) A fermenters optimizes the growth of the organisms by controlling many factors like nutrients, oxygen, growth inhibitors, pH and temperature.

iii) A fermenter may hold several thousand litres of the growth medium. So, fermenters allow the production of materials in bulk quantities. Massive amounts of medicines, insulin, human growth hormone, and other proteins are being produced in fermenters and this production proves much inexpensive,

Q.10.Give an example how biotechnology is helping for better environment. Ans. Applications of Biotechnology for Better Environment

  1. i) Biotechnology is also being used for dealing with environmental issues, like pollution control.
  2. ii) Development of renewable sources for energy.

:ii) Restoration of degraded lands and biodiversity conservation.

  1. iv) Bacterial enzymes are used to treat sewage water to purify.
  2. v) Microbes are being developed to be used as biopesticides, biofertilizers, biosensors etc.
  3. vi) Such transgenic microorganisms are also used for the recovery of metals, cleaning of spilled oils and for many other purposes.

Q.11.What is genetic engineering? What are the objectives of it?

Ans. Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering or. recombinant DNA technology involves the artificial synthesis, modification, removal, addition and repair of the genetic material (DNA).

Genetic engineering developed in the mid-1970s when it became possible to cut DNA and to transfer particular pieces of DNA from one type of organism into another. As a result, the characteristics of the host organism could be changed. If host organism is a microorganism, such as a bacterium, the transferred DNA is multiplied many times as the microorganism multiplies. Consequently, it is possible to obtain millions of copies of a specific DNA inside a bacterial cell.

Objectives of Genetic Engineering

The important objectives of genetic engineering are as follows.

  • Isolation of a particular gerje or part of a gene for various purposes such as gene therapy.
  • Production of particular RNA and protein molecules.
  • Improvement in the production of enzymes,.drugs and commercially important organic chemicals.
  • Production of varieties of plants having particular desirable characteristics.
  • Treatment of genetic defects in higher organisms.

Q.12.What basic steps a genetic engineer adopts during the manipulation of genes?

Ans. Basic Steps in Genetic Engineering

  1. Isolation of the gene of interest

In the first step, the genetic engineer identifies the gene of interest in a donor organism. Special enzymes, called restriction endonucleases, are used to cut the identified gene from the total DNA of donor organism.

  1. Insertion of the gene into a vector

A vector is selected for the transfer of the isolated gene of interest to the host cell. The vector may be a plasmid (the extra-chromosomal DNA present in many bacteria) or a bacteriophage. The gene of interest is attached with the vector DNA by using endonuclease (breaking enzymes) and ligase (joining enzymes). The vector DNA and the attached gene of interest are collectively called recombinant DNA.

Transfer of recombinant DMA into host organism

Recombinant DMA is transferred to the target host. In this way, host organism is transformed into a genetipally modified organism (GMO).

  1. Growth of the GMO

The GMO are provided suitable culture medium for growth to give as much copies of the gene of interest as needed.

  1. Expression of the gene

The GMO contains the gene of interest and manufactures the desired product, which is isolated from culture medium. .

Q.13. In biotechnology, what is meant by Genetically Modified Organism(GMO)?

How is it obtained?

Ans. When recombinant DNA is transferred to the target host. The host organism is transformed into a genetically modified organism (GMO).

Procedure to Make GMO ,

First Step: In the first step, the genetic engineer identifies the gene of interest in a donor organism. Special enzymes, called restriction endonucleases, are used to cut the identified gene from the total DNA of donor organism. Figure 17.5

Second Step: A vector is selected for the transfer of the isolated gene of interest to the host cell. The vector may be a plasmid (the extra-chromosomal DNA present in many bacteria) or a bacteriophage. The gene of interest is attached with the vector DNA by using endonuclease (breaking enzymes) and ligase (joining enzymes). The vector DNA and the attached gene of interest are collectively called recombinant DNA.

Third step: Recombinant DNA is transferred to the target host. In this way, host organism is transformed into a genetically modified organism (GMO).

Q.14. Describe the achievements of genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture and environment. .

Ans. Achievements of Genetic Engineering

Various achievements of genetic engineering are as follows.

Medicine

  • Human insulin gene was transferred into bacteria. The genetically modified bacteria became able to synthesize insulin. Diabetics are now receiving this insulin., Before genetic engineering, 500,000 sheep brains were required to produce 5 mg human growth hormone which like insulin is being obtained very cheap. “
  • In 1977 an E. coli bacterium was created that was capable of synthesizing the human growth hormone.
  • The hormone thymosin which may prove effective against brain and lung cancer has been produced by genetically modified microorganisms.
  • Beta-endorphin, a pain killer produced by the brain, has also been produced by genetic engineering techniques.
  • Genetic engineers produced a safe vaccine against the foot and mouth

disease (a viral disease in’cattle, goats and deer). Similarly many vaccines have been produced against human diseases such as hepatitis B.

  • Interferons are anti-viral proteins produced by cells infected with viruses. !n 1980, interferon was produced in the genetically modified microorganisms; for the first time.
  • The enzyme urokinase, which is used to dissolve blood clots, has been produced by genetically modified microorganisms.” “
  • Now it has become possible to modify the genes in the human egg cell. This can lead to the elimination of inherited diseases like heamophilia.

Genetic engineering techniques can also be used to cure blood diseases like thalassemia and sickle-cell anaemia, which result from defects in single genes Normal genes could be transferred into the bone marrow.

Agriculture

Genetic engineers have developed plants that can fix nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. Such plants need less fertilizers.

TRANSGENIC.(organisms with modified genetic set.up)plants are being

developed; in which desirable characteristics are present e.g. more yields and resistance against diseases, insects and herbicides.

Environment

  • Microbes, are being developed to be used as biopesticides, biofertilizers, biosensors etc. Such transgenic microorganisms are also used for the recovery of metals, cleaning of spilled oils and for many other purposes.
  • Bacterial enzymes are used to treat sewage water to-purify.

Q.1 5.What are single cell proteins? Describe their importance.

Ans. SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN

Single-Cell protein (SCP) refers to the protein content extracted from pure or mixed cultures of algae, yeasts, fungi or bacteria. It is known as single cell protein because the microorganisms used as producers are unicellular or

filamentous individuals.

Production of SCP

For the production of single-cell proteins, the microorganisms are grown in fermenters. These microorganisms utilize a variety of substrate like agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, natural gas like methane etc. Microorganisms grow very vigorously and produce a high yield of protein. The protein content produced by microorganisms is also known as novel protein or minifood.

Importance of SCP

SCP is gaining popularity day by day because it requires limited land area for production. We know that due to over-population, the world is facing the problem of food shortage. In future, the conventional agricultural methods might not be able to provide a sufficient supply of food (especially proteins). For a better management of food shortage problems (in humans and domestic animals), the use of miprobes as the producers of single-cell proteins has been successful on experimental basis. This technique was introduced by Prof. Scrimshow of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Scientist and food technologists believe that single-cell proteins will substitute the other protein-rich foods in human and animal feeds. •

Significance

All scientists recognize the significance of the production of single-cell proteins. The microorganisms grow very vigorously and produce a high yield. It has been

 

Biotechnology

calculated that 50 kilogram of yeast produces about 250 tons of protein within 24 hours. Algae grown in ponds produce 20 tone (dry weight) of protein per acre/year. This yield of protein is 10-15 times higher than soybeans and 20-50 times higher than corn. When single-cell proteins are produced by using yeasts, the products also contain high vitamin content, in the production of single-cell proteins, industrial wastes are used as raw materials for microorganisms. It helps in controlling pollution. The use of single-cell proteins has good prospects in future because they contain all essential amino acids. Moreover, the production of single-cell proteins is independent of seasonal variations.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Encircle or tick (S) the correct option for the statements from the MCQs given below:

  1. Humans have been making use of biotechnology since they discovered

(a) wine making

(b) farming

(c) genetic engineering

(d) cloning

2.Which one of the following is a form of biotechnology?

(a) animal breeding

(b) fish farming

(c) apiculture

(d) sericulture

  1. The use of living organisms in systems or processes for the manufacture of useful products or for services is called as

(a) immunology

(b) ichthyology

(c) biotechnology

(d) pharmacology

  1. Human began using micro-organism as early as

(a) 2000 BC (b) 3000 BC (c) 4000 BC (d) 6000 BC

5.Human began using micro-organisms for making

(a) wine and yogurt

(b) vinegar

(c) cheese

(d) all these

6.Which one of the following is considered as old biotechnology?

(a) farming

(b) animal breeding

(c) fermentation

(d) apiculture and sericulture

7.Who produced a sheep (Dolly) through genetic engineering? (a) lan Wilmut (b) Gregor Mendel (c) lan Charles (d) Charles Wilmut

8.An embryologist lan Wilmut produced

a sheep Dolly in

(a) 1991 (b) 1993

(c) 1997 (d) 1999

9.Which one of the following is considered as modern biotechnology

(a) genetic engineering

(b) fermentation

(c) animal breeding

(d) farming

10.The work started in

on genptic engineering

(a) 1944 (c) 1980

‘(b) 1964 (d)1990

11.When the scientists were able to cut and paste the DNA of organisms?

(a) 1944 (b) 1964 (c) 1970’s (d) 1977

 

  1. In which year scientists prepared human insulin by inserting the insulin gene in bacteria? (a) 1970 (b) 1978 (c) 1988 (d) 1997
  2. The complete map of human genome was published in

(a) 1970 (b) 1990 (c) 1997 (d) 2002

  1. In the field of medicine, biotechnologists synthesized

(a) analgesics (b) insulin (c) sedatives (d) narcotics

  1. Interferons are

(a) antibiotics (b) vaccines

(c) antiviral proteins

(d) human growth hormone

  1. Biotechnology techniques are very beneficial .in forensic medicine for identification of criminals through the study of

(a) fingerprints (b) DNA (c) blood tests (d) all these

  1. A large number of vaccines, antibodies, human growth hormones and other drugs have been produced through

(a) Pharmacology

(b) Materia Medica

(c) Biotechnology

(d) Genetic engineering

  1. Treatment through genes is known as

(a) gene insertion

(b) gene therapy

(c) DNA finger printing d) PCR

  1. Powdered milk: a mixture of barley, wheat flour and whole milk is an example Of

(a) malted foods ,

(b) fermented foods

(c) dairy products (d) beverage

20.Biotechnology has also revolutionized research activities in the area of (a) agriculture (b) aquaculture (c) apiculture (d) sericulture

  1. Various vitamins ere produced through

(a) dairy products

(b) micro-organisms

(c) vegetables and fruits

(d) all of these

  1. Transgenic organisms have been created to produce drugs from their \

(a) milk (b) blood (c) urine (d) all these

  1. Bacterial enzymes are used

(a) in medicines

(b) to treat sewage water

(c) in agriculture

(d) all these

  1. Microbes are being developed to be used as

(a) biopesticides (b) biofertilizers (c) biosensors (d) all these

  1. The process in which there is incomplete oxidation-reduction of organic substrate is known as

(a) glycolysis

(b) fermentation

(c) citric acid cycle

(d) electro transport chain

  1. In 1857, who convinced the scientific community that all fermentation processes are the result of microbial activity?

(a) Fleming . (b) Pasteur (c) lan Wilmut (d) Joseph Lister

  1. In glycolysis, the glucose is broken into

(a) pyruvie acid (b) acetic acid (c) lactic acid (d) formic acid

 

28.The fermentation is carried out by many types of yeast such as

  1. fa) Nostoc (b) Bacillus

(c) Saccharomyces

(d) all these

  1. When carbon dioxide is removed from pyruvic acid it is reduced into (a) ethanol (b) butanol (c) methanol (d) acetic acid
  2. Lactic acid fermentation is carried out by

(a) Streptococcus

(b) Lactobacillus .

(c) Saccharomyces

(d) both a and b

31.Lactic acid in fermentation is important for

(a) dairy industry

(b) wine industry

(c) pharmacology

(d) all these

32.In industrial level lactic acid fermentation is used for

(a) souring milk

(b) production of cheese

(c) backery items

(d) both a and b

33.It makes the food more nutritious, more digestible, safer, or tastier (a) Sterilization (b) Refrigeration , (c) Fermentation (d) Preservation

  1. Wheat dough is fermented by

(a) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

(b) lactic acid bacteria

(c) Aspergillus (d) both a and b

  1. In industrial level formic acid is produced through

(a) Aspergillus

(b) Saccharomyces

(c) Bacillus

(d) Streptococcus

  1. Ethanol and glycerol are produced with the help of

(a) Aspergillus

(b) Saccharomyces

(c) Streptococcus

(d) Bacillus

37.How many types of fermentation processes are carried out in fermenters?

, (a) two (b) three (c) four (d) six

  1. Acrylic acid in industrial level is produced through

(a) Bacillus (b) Saccharomyces (c) Aspergillus (d) Nostoc

  1. What is the major use of formic acid?

(a) in beverages

(b) in cosmetics ,

(c) in textile dyeing

(d) in fertilizers

40.Acrylic acid is used in

(a) industrial intermediate for plastics

(b) solvent and as sweetener

(c) industrial solvent

(d) all these

41.Which one of the following is used in rubber manufacture?

(a) formic acid (b) ethanol (c) glycerol (d) acrylic acid

42.Which one of these is used as sweetener?

(a) pyruvic acid (b) ethanol (c) glycerol (d) lactic acid

  1. Which of these is used in leather treatment?

(a) formic acid (b) lactic acid (c) citric acid (d) acrylic acid

44.Which one of these chemical/s is/are used in electroplating?

(a) acrylic acid (b) formic acid (c) citric acid (d) all these

 

  1. Which one is an intermediate for vinegar, esters and ethers?

(a) methanol (b) butanol (c) ethanol (d) pentanol

  1. Which one of the following fermenters has more complex design and arrangement

(a) batch fermentation

(b) continuous fermentation

(c) pharmacology fermentation

(d) both a and b

  1. The important objective of genetic engineering is

(a) production of particular protein molecules

(b) treatment of genetic defects

(c) gene therapy

(d) all these

  1. Which special enzymes are used to cut the identified gene from the total DNA of organism?

(a) restriction endonucleases

(b) restriction ligases

(c) bacteriophages

(d) both a and b.

  1. The vector DNA and the attached gene of interest are collectively called

(a) polymerase chain reactions

(b) recombinant DNA

(c) genetically modified organism

(d) transgenic

  1. Before genetic engineering, how many sheep brains were required to produce 5 mg human growth hormone?

(a) 5,000 (b) 50,000 (c) 500,000 (d) 5000,000

  1. Single-Cell Protein refers to the protein content extracted from pure or mixed cultures of

(a) algae

(b) yeast

(c) fungi or bacteria

(d) all these

52.for the production of SCP, the microorganisms are grown in

(a) culture (b) petri dishes (c) fermenters (d) test tubes

  1. For the culture of SCP micro organisms utilize

(a) agricultural wastes

(b) industrial wastes

(c) natural gas like methane

(d) all these

  1. Which of the following hormone proved effective against brain and lung cancer?

(a) adrenaline (b) calcitonin (c) thymosin (d) parathormone

  1. Beta-endorphin, one of the pain killers is produced by the (a) kidneys (b) brain (c) liver (d) pancreas

56.The first genetically engineered interferon was produced in

(a) 1970 (b) 1980 (c) 1984 (d) 1990

  1. It is an enzyme, which is used to dissolve blood clots

(a) urokinase (b) protease (c) ligase (d) nuclease

  1. For the cure of thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia the normal genes could be transferred into the (a) human egg (b) bone marrow (c) tissues (d) liver